Definitions

International visitor arrival and expenditure data presented on PATAmPOWER are submitted by individual national tourist organisations and national statistics offices in the Asia Pacific region.

The primary source for the visitor arrival data is the embarkation/debarkation card. These cards are completed by most visitors to Asia Pacific destinations.

Arrival statistics are reported to PATA either by country of residence or nationality of visitors and the current position is as follows:

Country of residence:

Australia; Cambodia; Canada; Chinese Taipei; Cook Islands; Cyprus; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Hawaii; Hong Kong SAR; Macao, China; Marshall Islands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Northern Marianas; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Tonga; USA; and Vanuatu.

Nationality:

Bhutan; Brunei, Chile; China; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati; Korea (ROK); Lao PDR; Malaysia; Maldives; Mexico; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Nicaragua; Palau; Thailand; Turkey; Tuvalu; and Vietnam.

The result of reporting by nationality is that the number of (for example) European arrivals to Asia Pacific destinations, by citizens who reside in Asia Pacific countries, becomes inflated. When a member changes from nationality to country of residence reporting, apparent declines in the number of European arrivals take place and increases occur in the number of arrivals from other Asia Pacific nations.

Definitions:

Definitions used on PATAmPOWER are slightly different from those used by other tourist organisations in some instances. The following are the PATA definitions:

IVA:

Short for International Visitor Arrival.

Visitor:

Any person visiting a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited and remaining at least 24 hours. (This definition is that of a “tourist” according to UNWTO usage.) The terms ‘Visitor’ and ‘Arrivals’, as they are used throughout this report refer to International Visitor Arrivals (IVAs).

 

The PATA Regions:

PATA has grouped the destination members of the Association (and some non-members) into twelve sub-regions. The term “Asia Pacific” as used on PATAmPOWER consists of the total area embraced by these sub-regions, which is as follows:

 

Americas

Central America:

Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; and Panama.

North America:

Bermuda; Canada; Greenland; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; and the USA.

South America:

Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Falkland Islands; French Guiana; Guyana; Paraguay; Peru; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Suriname; Uruguay; and Venezuela.

 

Asia

Central Asia:

Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; and Uzbekistan.

Northeast Asia:

China; Chinese Taipei; DPR Korea; Hong Kong SAR; Japan; Korea (ROK); Macao, China; and Mongolia.

South Asia:

Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; India; Iran; Maldives; Nepal; Pakistan; and Sri Lanka.

Southeast Asia:

Brunei; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao PDR; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Timor-Leste; and Vietnam.

West Asia:

Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Cyprus; Georgia; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Occupied Palestinian Territory; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; UAE; and Yemen.

 

Pacific

Melanesia:

Fiji; New Caledonia; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; and Vanuatu.

Micronesia:

Federated States of Micronesia; Guam; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Nauru; Northern Marianas; and Palau.

Oceania:

Australia; New Zealand; and Norfolk Island.

Polynesia:

American Samoa; Cook Islands; French Polynesia; Hawaii; Niue; Pitcairn Islands; Samoa; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; and the Wallis and Futuna Islands.

 

Origins of Visitor Arrivals

Most countries of origin listed at PATAmPOWER are self-evident, except for the following:

Central Africa:

Angola; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, Republic of; Congo, the Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; and Sao Tome and Principe.

East Africa:

Burundi; Comoros; Djibouti; Eritrea; Eritrea; Kenya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mauritius; Mayotte: Mozambique; Reunion; Rwanda; Seychelles; Somalia; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; and Zimbabwe.

North Africa:

Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; South Sudan; Sudan; and Tunisia.

South Africa:

Botswana; Lesotho; Namibia; Saint Helena; South Africa; and Swaziland.

West Africa:

Benin; Burkina Faso; Cape Verde; Ivory Coast; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; and Togo.

Other Africa:

Countries in Africa not listed elsewhere.

Caribbean:

Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Bermuda; Bonaire, Saint Eustatius & Saba; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Curacao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; Montserrat; Puerto Rico; Sint Maarten; St. Kitts-Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent & the Grenadines; Trinidad & Tobago; Turks & Caicos Islands; Virgin Islands, British; and Virgin Islands, United States.

Other Americas:

Countries in the Americas not listed elsewhere.

Other Asia:

Countries in Asia not listed elsewhere.

East Europe:

Belarus; Bulgaria; Czech Republic;  Hungary; Moldova; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovakia; and Ukraine.

North Europe:

Denmark; Estonia; Faeroe Islands; Finland; Iceland; Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Norway; Sweden; and UK.

South Europe:

Albania; Andorra; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Croatia; Gibraltar; Greece; Holy See; Italy; Macedonia; Malta; Montenegro; Portugal; San Marino; Serbia, Slovenia; and Spain.

West Europe:

Austria; Belgium; France; Germany; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Monaco; Netherlands; and Switzerland.

Other Europe:

Countries in Europe not listed elsewhere.

Other Pacific:

Countries in the Pacific area not listed elsewhere.

Other Countries:

Countries not listed elsewhere.

 

Explanatory Notes

The following notes are provided to facilitate understanding of the data contained within PATAmPOWER. Where necessary, footnotes are included to help in the correct interpretation of the data.

The terms “Asia Pacific”, “PATA region” and “PATA countries” are used interchangeably within PATAmPOWER.

1.   Regional and PATA-wide totals shown at PATAmPOWER reflect the number of visitor arrivals rather than the number of individuals travelling from their place of usual residence. For example, a person visiting Japan, Singapore and Thailand on a single trip would be counted three times in the regional totals.

2.   Since the Guam and Hawaii arrival figures are already included in the total USA count. However, the two sets of figures of Guam and Hawaii are listed under the Pacific regional grouping because they are recognised as PATA member destinations.

3.   With the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Hawaii Tourism Authority both reporting their arrivals, double counting is inevitable. Because of different methods of data collection used, it is not possible for the two organisations to quantify the extent of overlap in their arrival figures.

4.   The explanatory footnotes illustrate the correct use of the data. It is recommended that consideration be given to these before attempting any comparisons of the data.

5.   Arrivals to Asia Pacific destinations from each of the countries of origin are as reported by destinations. The source for the arrivals data is the embarkation/debarkation card completed by visitors on arrival in each country.

6.   Departures from each of the Asia Pacific countries are recorded as arrivals to destinations world-wide, not just Asia Pacific. No attempt should be made to match these figures with departure numbers from any source market as one departure from the country of origin may appear as multiple arrivals to destinations within Asia Pacific. Not all Asia Pacific countries collect outbound travel data.

7.   Where data are not available and/or percentage change differences are unable to be computed, the symbol “….” will appear.

 

Notes:

Bhutan: excludes traffic from India and Bangladesh.

Cambodia: includes same-day visitors through Preah Vihear.

Canada: excludes entries by land same-day via the USA. ‘Other North America’ includes arrivals from the Caribbean.

Chile: excludes returning residents.

China: includes overnight and same-day travellers. The notation of ‘China’ refers to the People’s Republic of China. Arrivals from border areas have been included in international arrivals since September 2016. As a result, the data cannot be compared with those of previous years after this statistical change.

Guam: arrivals by air only.

Hawaii: arrivals by air only.

Hong Kong SAR: includes overnight and same-day travellers.

Kiribati: includes arrivals to Tarawa and Kiritimati.

Korea (ROK): excludes overseas Koreans.

Macao, China: includes overnight and same-day travellers. Data exclude non-residents namely workers, students, etc.

Marshall Islands: arrivals by air only.

Malaysia: China includes Hong Kong SAR and Macao, China.

Mexico: air arrivals except for ‘Other Countries’ which includes land arrivals for more than one night.

Myanmar: air/land/sea arrivals at Yangon entry points and air arrivals at Mandalay, Bagan and Naypyitaw International Airports; excludes day-trippers at borders; only annual data are available for 2016.

New Caledonia: arrivals by air only.

Nicaragua: excludes returning residents.

Northern Marianas: includes air and sea arrivals.

Palau: arrivals by air; excludes returning residents, employment and other (student).

Philippines: excludes overseas Filipinos.

Samoa: includes air and sea arrivals.

Singapore: excludes Malaysian citizens arriving by land (road/rail); includes excursionists.

Thailand: excludes overseas Thais.

USA: beginning in 2014, arrival counts include 1-night stay travellers from all source markets; prior to 2014 data exclude 1-night stay travellers from all sources other than Canada and Mexico.

Vanuatu: arrivals by air only.

China: Monthly IVAs data are no longer available from 2017 onward. Only annual data will be available in the following year.

Hawaii: IVAs data by origin market are only available on a quarterly basis, thus total quarterly numbers will appear in the months of March, June, September and December respectively when selecting the data by month and by quarter of the 2 indicators including IVAs by Origin Market and Source Markets.

Cyprus, India, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea and Turkey: IVAs data by origin market are only available on a yearly basis, thus total yearly numbers will appear in the month of December when selecting the data by month and by quarter of the 2 indicators including IVAs by Origin Market and Source Market.

 

Expenditure data notes:

Canada: overnight visitors only

Hong Kong SAR: overnight visitors; exchange rate is pegged at 8 HK$ for 1 US$

Macao, China: excludes gaming expenses.

Malaysia: exchange rate is pegged at 3.3 RM for 1 US$

New Zealand: exchange rate is pegged at NZ$ 1.3 for 1 US$

Singapore: exchange rate is pegged at 1.3 S$ for 1 US$. Tourism receipt data include all prepayments for goods and services made by visitor, transit passengers and foreign air/sea crew; gaming expenditure is included from 2010 onwards.

USA: excludes air fares.

Vietnam: exchange rate is pegged at 21000 Dong for 1 US$

 

STR Data Notes

ADR (Average Daily Rate): Room revenue divided by rooms sold, displayed as the average rental rate for a single room.

RevPAR (Revenue Per Available Room): Room revenue divided by rooms available.

Occupancy: Rooms sold divided by rooms available. Occupancy is always displayed as a percentage of rooms occupied.

Hawaii: Hawaii figures are already included in the total USA count and North America count. However, Hawaii is also listed under the Pacific regional grouping because they are recognised as PATA member destinations.

 

City Visitors data notes

Canada: Non-resident travelers.

China: Foreign visitor arrivals including Hong SAR, Macao, China and Chinese Taipei.

Cambodia: Foreign visitor arrivals.

Chinese Taipei: Number of foreign arrivals at the port of entry.

Lao PDR: Visitors by province.

Japan:  Number of foreign arrivals through main port entry in each region.

Korea ROK: Number of foreign arrivals at the port of entry.

Malaysia: Hotel guest arrivals.

Philippines: Numbers of foreign travelers.

Thailand: Number of foreign arrivals at the port of entry.

 

Data sources

Tourism Australia

Australian Bureau of Statistics

Department of Tourism, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Bhutan

Tourism Development Department, Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources, Brunei

Ministry of Tourism, Cambodia

Destination Canada; Statistics Canada

Servicio Nacional de Turismo, Chile

China National Tourism Administration, World Tourism Alliance

Tourism Bureau, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Chinese Taipei

Cook Islands Tourism Corporation

Cook Islands Statistics Office

Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Finance, Statistical Service

Bureau of Statistics, Tourism Fiji

Guam Visitors Bureau

Department of Business Economic Development & Tourism, Hawaii

Hawaii Tourism Authority

Hong Kong Tourism Board

Department of Tourism, Government of India

Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia

Japan National Tourist Organization

Ministry of Justice, Japan

Kiribati National Tourism Office

Korea Tourism Organization

Korea Culture and Tourism Institute

Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism, Lao PDR

Macao Government Tourism Office

Tourism Malaysia

Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, Maldives

Marshall Islands Visitors Authority

Secretaría de Turismo de México

Coordinación de Investigación de Mercados

National Tourism Center of Mongolia

Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, Myanmar

Nepal Tourism Board

Institut de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, New Caledonia

Tourism New Zealand

Statistics New Zealand

Instituto Nicaraguense de Turismo

Statistics Niue

Marianas Visitors Authority

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan

Palau Visitors Authority

Papua New Guinea Tourism Promotion Authority

Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo

Republic of the Philippines Department of Tourism

Samoa Tourism Authority

Samoa Bureau of Statistics

Singapore Tourism Board

Solomon Islands Visitors Bureau

Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority

Tahiti Tourisme

Institut de la statistique de la Polynesie Francaise

Ministry of Tourism and Sports, Thailand

Tonga Visitors Bureau

Ministry of Commerce, Tourism and Labour, Tonga

Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey

Statistics Tuvalu

National Travel and Tourism Office, U.S. Department of Commerce, USA

Vanuatu Statistics Office

Vanuatu Tourism Office

Vietnam National Administration of Tourism

comScore, Inc

International Telecommunication Union

OAG

STR